Caseous Lymphadenitis in Sheep

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA), a disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is a widespread chronic infection causing significant financial losses for the sheep industry. The bacteria can enter a flock either from the environment or more frequently from the introduction of infected sheep. Once present in a herd, this infection can be presented in an external form involving superficial lymph nodes, an internal form involving internal lymph nodes or organs (especially the lungs), or a combination of both.
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Serum Antibody Products

Serum antibody products are as the name implies, derived from serum, the fraction of whole blood that contains the disease-fighting proteins known as antibodies. Antibodies are produced by normal animals in response to an antigen (in our case, bacteria or bacterial toxins) and are very specific for that antigen. An antigen, in the presence of its specific antibodies is destroyed or neutralized. The end result is an animal immune to that antigen. One way to produce antibodies (immunity) is to vaccinate, but that takes time. An alternate method to produce immunity is to provide the actual antibodies in a ready-to-use format, or a serum antibody product.
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Clostridium Perfringens in Domestic Farm Animals

Clostridium perfringens is a spore forming, anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in the soil and the digestive tract of many domestic animals. Six Types (A, B, C, D, E and F) have been identified on the basis of the toxins produced, with Types B, C and D being the most commonly associated with disease in domestic animals. Vaccines and antitoxins that produce protection to Types C (Alpha and Beta toxins) and D (Alpha and Epsilon toxins) will also protect against Type B (Alpha, Beta and Epsilon toxins).
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Tetanus in Farm Animals

Tetanus is a profoundly fatal disease in domestic farm animals, with worldwide distribution.  There is a wide variation in susceptibility to the disease with horses and pigs being highly susceptible and cattle, sheep and goats being less susceptible.  The organism that causes the disease, Clostridium tetani, requires an anaerobic environment (no oxygen) in which to grow.  Animals are at greatest risk of infection, due to growth characteristics of the organism, when the bacteria enter an area of the body without exposure to outside air.
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